WHO Classification
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WHO Classification

The World Health Organization Classification for
Tumours of the Central Nervous System

Neuroepithelial Tumours of the CNS

  1. Astrocytic tumours 
    1. Astrocytoma (WHO grade II) 
      1. variants: protoplasmic, gemistocytic, fibrillary, mixed 
    2. Anaplastic (malignant) astrocytoma (WHO grade III) 
    3. Glioblastoma multiforme (WHO grade IV) 
      1. variants: giant cell glioblastoma, gliosarcoma 
    4. Pilocytic astrocytoma (WHO grade I)
    5. Subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (WHO grade I)
    6. Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (WHO grade I)
  2. Oligodendroglial tumours 
    1. Oligodendroglioma (WHO grade II) 
    2. Anaplastic (malignant) oligodendroglioma (WHO grade III) 
  3. Ependymal cell tumours 
    1. Ependymoma (WHO grade II) 
      1. variants: cellular, papillary, epithelial, clear cell, mixed 
    2. Anaplastic ependymoma (WHO grade III) 
    3. Myxopapillary ependymoma 
    4. Subependymoma (WHO grade I) 
  4. Mixed gliomas 
    1. Mixed oligoastrocytoma (WHO grade II) 
    2. Anaplastic (malignant) oligoastrocytoma (WHO grade III) 
    3. Others (e.g. ependymo-astrocytomas) 
  5. Neuroepithelial tumours of uncertain origin 
    1. Polar spongioblastoma (WHO grade IV) 
    2. Astroblastoma (WHO grade IV) 
    3. Gliomatosis cerebri (WHO grade IV) 
  6. Tumours of the choroid plexus 
    1. Choroid plexus papilloma 
    2. Choroid plexus carcinoma (anaplastic choroid plexus papilloma) 
  7. Neuronal and mixed neuronal-glial tumours 
    1. Gangliocytoma 
    2. Dysplastic gangliocytoma of cerebellum (Lhermitte-Duclos) 
    3. Ganglioglioma 
    4. Anaplastic (malignant) ganglioglioma 
    5. Desmoplastic infantile ganglioglioma 
    6. Central neurocytoma 
    7. Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumour 
    8. Olfactory neuroblastoma (esthesioneuroblastoma) 
      1. variant: olfactory neuroepithelioma 
  8. Pineal Parenchyma Tumours 
    1. Pineocytoma 
    2. Pineoblastoma 
    3. Mixed pineocytoma/pineoblastoma 
  9. Tumours with neuroblastic or glioblastic elements (embryonal tumours) 
    1. Medulloepithelioma 
    2. Primitive neuroectodermal tumours with multipotent differentiation 
      1. medulloblastoma 
        1. variants: medullomyoblastoma, melanocytic medulloblastoma, desmoplastic medulloblastoma 
      2. cerebral primitive neuroectodermal tumour 
    3. Neuroblastoma 
      1. variant: ganglioneuroblastoma 
    4. Retinoblastoma 
    5. Ependymoblastoma 

Non-neuroepithelial Tumours of the CNS

  1. Tumours of the Sellar Region 
    1. Pituitary adenoma 
    2. Pituitary carcinoma 
    3. Craniopharyngioma 
  2. Hematopoietic tumours 
    1. Primary malignant lymphomas 
    2. Plasmacytoma 
    3. Granulocytic sarcoma 
    4. Others
  3. Germ Cell Tumours 
    1. Germinoma 
    2. Embryonal carcinoma 
    3. Yolk sac tumour (endodermal sinus tumour) 
    4. Choriocarcinoma 
    5. Teratoma 
    6. Mixed germ cell tumours 
  4. Tumours of the Meninges 
    1. Meningioma 
      1. variants: meningothelial, fibrous (fibroblastic), transitional (mixed), psammomatous, angiomatous, microcystic, secretory, clear cell, chordoid, lymphoplasmacyte-rich, and metaplastic subtypes 
    2. Atypical meningioma 
    3. Anaplastic (malignant) meningioma 
  5. Non-menigothelial tumours of the meninges 
    1. Benign Mesenchymal 
      1. Osteocartilaginous tumours 
      2. Lipoma 
      3. Fibrous histiocytoma 
      4. Others 
    2. Malignant Mesenchymal 
      1. Chondrosarcoma 
      2. Hemangiopericytoma 
      3. Rhabdomyosarcoma 
      4. Meningeal sarcomatosis 
      5. Others 
    3. Primary Melanocytic Lesions 
      1. Diffuse melanosis 
      2. Melanocytoma 
      3. Malignant melanoma 
        1. Variant meningeal melanomatosis 
    4. Hemopoietic Neoplasms 
      1. Malignant lymphoma 
      2. Plasmacytoma 
      3. Granulocytic sarcoma 
    5. Tumours of Uncertain Histogenesis 
      1. Hemangioblastoma (capillary hemangioblastoma) 
  6. Tumours of Cranial and Spinal Nerves 
    1. Schwannoma (neurinoma, neurilemoma) 
      1. Cellular, plexiform, and melanotic subtypes 
    2. Neurofibroma 
      1. Circumscribed (solitary) neurofibroma 
      2. Plexiform neurofibroma 
    3. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour (Malignant schwannoma) 
      1. Epithelioid 
      2. Divergent mesenchymal or epithelial differentiation 
      3. Melanotic 
  7. Local Extensions from Regional Tumours 
    1. Paraganglioma (chemodectoma) 
    2. Chordoma 
    3. Chodroma 
    4. Chondrosarcoma 
    5. Carcinoma 
  8. Metastatic tumours 
  9. Unclassified Tumours 
  10. Cysts and Tumour-like Lesions 
    1. Rathke cleft cyst 
    2. Epidermoid 
    3. Dermoid 
    4. Colloid cyst of the third ventricle 
    5. Enterogenous cyst 
    6. Neuroglial cyst 
    7. Granular cell tumour (choristoma, pituicytoma) 
    8. Hypothalamic neuronal hamartoma 
    9. Nasal glial herterotopia 
    10. Plasma cell granuloma 

last changed 25-May-2011.

Astrocytic Tumours
Oligodendroglial Tumours
Mixed Gliomas

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